A zebra enjoying a quiet stroll on the grassy plain where he
lives suddenly hears the sound of a lion off in the distance.
So what happens?
Instantaneously, a wonderful mechanism known as the stress response, kicks into gear. Upon hearing the sound, the zebra’s thinking brain (yes, a zebra does have a kind of thinking brain) identifies it as a lion, and sends a message to his (or her) amygdala, the warning center of the emotional brain. The amygdala confirms that there is danger afoot, and immediately alerts another part of the emotional brain – the hypothalamus – which controls hormone release.
You might be surprised to know that this process which takes place in the zebra is exactly the same as the one that takes place in you when you feel threatened.
So what happens next?
Whether you’re a zebra or a human, your hypothalamus directs your body to release more than a thousand hormones and neurotransmitters whose job it is to activate your sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and to adjust your body in ways that brilliantly prepare you to deal with the threat. For example:
In the case of the zebra, all this works very well to help
him run from the lion. If the zebra manages to escape and finds a safe
place to hide…
what happens next?
If the zebra were anything like a typical human, he would
spend hours, maybe even days or weeks, dwelling on the terrible thing
that happened to him. Perhaps his thoughts would run something like
this: “My life is ruined. The one thing I loved was running free on the
grassy plain, and now I have to watch my back. What a drag! I hate that
miserable lion - why did he have to do that? And why do these things
always happen to me?”
But fortunately for the zebra, his mind doesn’t work like that. Assuming the lion doesn’t come along again any time soon, the zebra will continue to live in blissful ignorance. The incident will be forgotten, and he will not worry himself about what may happen in the future.
The result? After he’s worked off the stress response by running at top speed away from the lion, his body gradually returns to normal. His heart rate and breathing slow down, his muscles relax, his digestion returns to normal – and, if Ms. Zebra is anywhere around, he’s now ready to enjoy a sexual encounter.
Unfortunately for us humans, our minds don’t work like the
zebra’s. We tend to dwell on what happened and to worry about what may
happen in the future. And so the stress response continues – our
muscles stay tense, our digestion is upset, our blood pressure rises,
and we develop respiratory problems.
And – this may surprise you – much of the time, we don’t even realize that we’re dwelling on what happened.
How, you may wonder, is that possible?
For most people, their upstairs brain (the more evolved part
of the brain that’s in charge of our conscious thinking processes) is to
some degree out of touch with their downstairs brain (the part of the brain that's in charge of our
emotions and instincts). Dan Siegel refers to this as a lack of
Because of inadequate vertical integration, we may go through much of our day without realizing just how much our body is almost continually reacting to minor stressors. These stress reactions tend to build up over time, weakening our immune system (making us more susceptible to colds and flu), increasing physical pain, worsening symptoms of depression and anxiety, and making it harder for us to concentrate or make decisions.
Almost all unhealthy stress reactions involve a lack of some kind of integration. You may remember Paula, the intensive care nurse who virtually eliminated years of crippling pain and anxiety simply by shifting her mode of attention from one that favored the left hemisphere to one that integrated both left and right hemispheres. Siegel refers to this as “horizontal integration.”
And as you’ll see on other pages about stress on this site, whenever there is a lack of integration, there is a tendency for the brain and body to create stress and disease.
While it’s true that our minds are capable of triggering
the stress response to such a degree that it can cause mental,
emotional, and physical imbalance, let’s not forget that it’s a powerful
part of our physiology for an important reason. When triggered in
response to an actual, short-lived danger, the stress response helps us
to accomplish physical feats we might otherwise find extremely
difficult, if not impossible to manage.
The following article, which appeared in the Boston Globe on November 1, 1980, offers a dramatic example of what a person, out of compassionate concern for another, can do under the helpful influence of the stress response:
In this case, a well-placed stress response helped Lemerand to accomplish an apparent miracle.
As we say repeatedly on this site, whatever challenge you may be facing – whether it’s an outer circumstance, physical pain, or a difficult emotion – there’s one thing you can do that will help you deal with whatever it is in a calm and constructive way:
Remember to breathe…
In other words – to whatever extent you’re able, anchor your attention in the hub of pure awareness. If, in a moment of stress, you’ve already been practicing doing that for a while, you may be able to simply shift your attention inward to connect to your core of calm, strength, and ease. Or you can use any of the techniques you learn on this site to help you make the shift.
Whenever you’re able to pair a stressful sensation or emotion with an
experience of the core, you’re literally rewiring the neural pathways in
Say, for example, you’re feeling anxious about a test you’ll be taking. By simply contacting the state of calm and ease at your core, while at the same time being aware of the feeling of anxiety, you change the way your brain processes the anxious feeling. Neurons related to the experience of anxiety will fire together with neurons related to the experience of calm and, as a result, they will begin to wire together.
Of course, it takes a number of repetitions before the new wiring will be secure and reliable. But each time you experience anxiety and calm together, it makes it a little easier for you to relax the next time a feeling of anxiety comes up. (And when you’re less anxious, your lower brain will be less likely to get in the way of your upper brain as it focuses on taking your test!)
Perhaps you read the story of Tony on our cognitive behavioral therapy page. During an hour-long class on stress management for diabetes, Tony understood, for the first time, that it was his attitude which had created much of his stress. As a result of that new understanding, he was able to change a lifetime of reactive habits and to change his life in some rather dramatic ways.
In future pages, we'll be talking more about the physical symptoms of stress, the different causes of stress, and stress management techniques that will help you relieve stress.